Thursday, 15 March 2018

The Raila-Uhuru Unity Pact in Perspective

Uhuru Kenyatta and Raila Odinga after the meeting held at Harambee House.

Courtesy: Capital FM.

he new found camaraderie between Raila Odinga and Uhuru Kenyatta surprised many people, perhaps with the exception of politicians who have mastered the art of sowing seeds of enmity during daytime and livening their friendship when night falls. Typical Kenyan politicians foot the bill of grand liars.

Equally surprised was the trio of Kalonzo Musyoka, Musalia Mudavadi and Moses Wetang’ula the so-called co-principals of the NASA coalition, which only exists by name, having hit a dead end following a series of unending suspicion and mistrust among the coalition’s parties.

With the trio labeled as the “Three Nigerians” following the narration of the trail of events on January 30th when Raila Odinga took the oath as the ‘People’s President’, daggers have been drawn in NASA coalition with the enigmatic politician accused of betraying the coalition’s cause; the pursuit for electoral justice.

Infuriated with the Raila-Uhuru pact, the three ‘musketeers’ – Kalonzo, Mudavadi and Wetang’ula – bemoaned the failure to be consulted, and initially they didn’t endorse the agreement between the sons of Jaramogi and Jomo save for Kalonzo who sounded evangelical at a funeral stating how the ‘handshake’ was a great relief to him. 

Lately, though, the embattled ‘musketeers’ have expressed their desire to meet with Uhuru Kenyatta. This came after they realized that they were flirting with the state of political isolation; never mind that the trio is a spineless lot with none of them having neither the capacity nor capability to craft, oil and propel a powerful political machine at the national level.

Far from the intrigues surrounding the Harambee House meeting, a significant proportion of the Republic’s citizens, including the disgraced Kenyan politicians, have expressed support for the two – Raila and Uhuru – in their quest to unite the country.

It is hypocritical not to acknowledge the country’s tainted image as a polity whose national politics is premised on ethnic political formations. But, the million dollar question is whether the latest political development orchestrated by Uhuru and Raila qualifies as a critical juncture that will change the course of the Republic’s national politics for the better.

To state that the Raila-Uhuru deal on building the bridges of nationhood is the real deal in transforming Kenya’s national political architecture only amounts to a blatant bluff, hell bent on ignoring the history of political agreements in the Republic.

An astute observer, insightful analyst as well as a diligent student of Kenyan politics will submit to you that political agreements in Kenya are meant to serve the personal interests of the politicians and not the collective interests of the citizens. It is no wonder that such agreements can be dishonored with the differing politicians forging other alliances while publicly declaring their previously deemed political friends as enemies. Who gets hoodwinked? The ignorant citizens.

Motives of the Unity Agreement
A number of factors are believed to have occasioned the political agreement between the party leaders of the Jubilee Party and the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) Party; ranging from the would-be genuine factors to conspiracies hatched by the legendary and illusionary conspirators. 

The factor that stands out is the visit by the immediate former Secretary of State of the government of USA Rex Tillerson. In as much as various sections of the Kenyan public view this factor as simply coincidental with the Raila-Uhuru meeting, I am convinced that Uncle Sam played a great role in cementing the deal between the two. 

USA is leading the quite obnoxious and vague War on Terror, and the East African region is considered a strategic segment of the African arc in regards to America’s global geopolitical interests.

Any real or perceived division in Kenya’s national politics is believed to significantly energize insurgent groups like the Al Shabaab. And with Kenya mapped out as a very strategic ally to USA, then Washington had to run up and down to bring Raila and Uhuru on the table while dangling carrots such as financial rewards among other material benefits. Are Raila and Uhuru not corrupt?

Secondly, the issue of legacy of the two political leaders is thought to have triggered the meeting. The sons of the Republic’s first President and first Vice President have the intentions to be remembered as having greatly contributed to the healing of an ethnically polarized country. But I highly doubt if their agreement on unity is an elixir that will enable Kenya to be a nation.

And by the way, legacy is to a politician as reputation is to a well-mannered person. At least Kenyan mainstream politicians have no reputation at all bearing in mind their wayward nature and weird mannerisms. 

Thirdly, Raila Odinga may have chosen to embrace the if-you-can’t-beat-them-join-them mantra. In as much as the 2017 presidential election was a charade and a typical monkey business affair, Raila Odinga clearly ran out of options in felling down the corrupt Jubilee administration using gung ho tactics and the trench techniques.

So he may have decided to cooperate with the Jubilee administration to finish it off from within. 

For proper understanding of the former premier’s new found dalliance with his former deputy in the Grand Coalition administration, it is important to revisit Raila Odinga’s political past though in selective terms.

After the 1997 presidential election in which Daniel Moi rigged to emerge victorious despite a divided Opposition, Raila Odinga endeared himself to the ‘professor’ of Kenyan politics, leading to the historical cooperation and thereafter merger between the Kenya African National Union (KANU) and the National Development Party (NDP). The result: dissolution of NDP and formation of ‘New KANU’. 

Raila’s move then was informed by the 2002 succession politics and the possibility that KANU would fail to have a strong and convincing presidential candidate. And the end of the day, Moi embraced ‘Project Uhuru’ and Raila led a mass walk-out of previously KANU diehards from the cockerel party.

Fourthly, the 2022 succession politics may have led to the unity agreement. This factor is informed by the previous (third) one. The doubt is whether Raila will contest for the presidency or not, but the certainty of the answer lies within the two possibilities. 

If he is to vie in 2022, then he won’t be supporting William Ruto and chances are that he might pick a running mate from the Mt. Kenya voting bloc. In case he doesn’t make a fifth stab at the presidency, then Raila Odinga will support William Ruto with the former’s family members and intimate friends assured of a good number of slots in the would-be William Ruto’s administration. 

What if Raila is to support two of the three ‘musketeers’, either Kalonzo or Mudavadi? This certainly means that he has to finish off the Jubilee Party from within and totally emasculate it. But chances of this happening are extremely minimal as the “Three Nigerians” failed to act courageously when it mattered most – during the January 30th swearing in – and Odinga may thus choose to support Ruto rather than the namby-pamby trio. 

Unsettled Questions & the Future
Will the embers of the Third Liberation flicker out since ODM’s cooperation with the Jubilee Party has rendered the National Resistance Movement-Kenya headless? Raila Odinga was a key figure in the struggle and birth of the Republic’s Second Liberation, and he is on record affirming the unstoppable journey towards the Third Liberation. 

Revolutionary-minded and youthful personalities must now learn to chart their own path and break away from the shadow of the former Prime Minister. How feasible is this though? If only the young and progressive minded individuals believe in themselves.

Who will check the incompetency, malaise, excesses and maladministration of the Uhuru Kenyatta administration? In the last five years, Raila Odinga effectively checked the wrongs committed by the Jubilee administration, unraveling one scandal after the other. 

With the new found camaraderie, just who will stand up and criticize the Jubilee administration for its missteps and mistakes? The three ‘musketeers’ are not equal to task neither are the other 2017 presidential candidates. 

What happens to the fight for electoral justice? NASA’s push for far-reaching electoral reforms has hit a snag. As a matter of fact, NASA is primarily dead with its death awaiting the mortician’s mega proclamation. 

Going forward, the youthful and reform-minded Kenyans must reflect and take the responsibility of liberating the Republic of Kenya from the old order. A good number of young Kenyans are already compromised and corrupted by the system, but the struggle for liberation shouldn’t wane neither should it be expected that the ‘Kenya We Want’ will dawn any time soon. It is a long struggle. 

For Raila Odinga, his political career is in its sunset years yet many people still look up to him for leadership. He has done a lot for the country but changing tact and deciding to dine with the corrupt and rogue Jubilee regime is an act of political immorality.

Joining hands with the Jubilee administration can only be acknowledged if social, economic and political injustices will be effectively addressed through proper implementation of the Republic’s Constitution. 

The new found camaraderie is a cosmetic and superficial move towards realizing national unity as political interests will override the intended objectives.

Email the writer at

Friday, 2 February 2018

Lest we forget that USA is also a Shithole

Trump meeting African leaders at the G7 meeting in 2017.
Spitting fire and fury over his dislike for Blacks and other non-White people, the unrestrained political mongrel in the name of Donald Trump bluffed that immigrants from ‘shithole’ countries in Africa including Haiti and El Salvador are not welcome in USA.

Nobody would have imagined that a president of the so called world’s superpower state would utter such racist and divisive sentiments. But then, it isn’t a surprise since the 45th occupant of the White House is a man terribly short of insight with a delusional penchant for courting attention.

Facing economic, social and political despondency for decades, African states and other poor non-African, non-White countries ashamedly carry along the ‘shithole’ tag.

Precisely, the nature and behaviour of most of the African governments make it prime for the ‘shithole’ classification to ideally define the African governments. Why ‘shithole’ African states?

Look around the continent and realize how African states are infested with corruption, poverty, socio-economic inequalities and disparities, political injustice among other challenges which majority of the states have deliberately refused to address or pretend to be addressing.

Decades after gaining the oft-exaggerated political independence, the filthy majority of the African states are facing the same socio-economic and political problems they sought to effectively deal with at the time the cunning colonialists ‘declared’ them politically independent.

But most people often forget, or at least pretend to forget that African countries would be miles ahead socially, economically and politically were it not for the colonization and neo-colonization of the Black man’s continent.

Who are responsible for colonization and neo-colonization of Africa? The foreign powers, with their mad rush to Africa premised on the classical rivalry between the Western and Eastern hemispheres of the world, though the greedy African political leadership is also to be blamed.

The West has been led by USA for years following the crumbling of the British Empire. Taking advantage of the historical and apocalyptic fall of the British Empire, the USA subsumed in pretence the world’s leadership with her hegemonic global agenda fueled by the much famed ideology of American Exceptionalism and the Cold War.

During the Cold War, African states were vulnerable to the antics of the world’s superpowers at that time, the USA and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), before the latter’s cataclysmic disintegration. African countries were enticed by ‘gifts’ from the capitalist axis led by USA and communist axis under USSR’s leadership.

Neo-colonialism, which Africa’s former colonial masters had institutionalized, intensified as a result of the Cold War. Foreign powers offered financial and technical assistance to African states that cooperated with them with some going to an extent of facilitating the toppling of governments.

Of particular concern is the role played by the notorious USA and nosy France in overthrowing legitimate governments across Africa.

USA, for instance, was instrumental in engineering the military coup in Ghana then under the leadership of the charismatic pan-Africanist, Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah. The aim of the coup in Ghana was to trigger a stream of chaos or put in place a puppet regime so that USA could get as much cocoa as possible at extremely cheaper rates.

Across Africa’s Great Lakes Region in the lush Congo Forest, the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly known as Zaire) was not spared either by the covetousness of Washington. The USA government was behind the ousting of the influential pan-Africanist Patrice Lumumba who was captured, tortured and executed.

Lumumba was replaced by the flashy dictator, Mobutu Sese Seko, whose puppet regime went to bed with the USA government to loot the minerals at the expense of the Congolese citizens, majority of whom are poor.

Disguising herself as the champion of democracy across the world, the USA didn’t bother to promote democratic principles in DRC, choosing instead to confidently support a dictatorial regime led by the despotic Mobutu. Currently, USA’s multi-national corporations walk into DRC, collect minerals and walk out in fashion under protection of DRC’s authoritarian regime and the USA government.

Nigeria also endured a lengthy period of political instability characterized by coups that the USA partly orchestrated. They saw the oil and voila, they triggered chaos in Africa’s most populous country. Washington shipped the oil as poor Nigerians wallowed in poverty.

In dubious fashion, the USA government continues to be hell bent in supporting non-democratic regimes in Africa and interfering with the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other states.

Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Djibouti and other states that have non-democratic governments continue to enjoy the support of Uncle Sam. Ethiopia has a terrible human rights record but Washington cannot advocate for the rule of law to be observed owing to the fact that the former is a strategic military partner to the USA government.

Having mastered the art of double-standards, the USA cannot condemn the authoritarian regime of East Africa’s longest-serving despot, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni. In Kenya, the USA government is supporting the corrupt and rogue Jubilee administration without showing utmost concern for social and political injustice brought to light before, during and after the electioneering period.

By the way, I’m exasperated by the dictatorial antics of the despotic Jubilee administration that rekindles the memories of the anti-democratic KANU regime. Kenya’s democratic gains have been eroded under the Jubilee administration and unapologetically, Kenya is acquiring a peculiar statehood of being a shithole of shitholes. Washington, the champion of democracy, would pretentiously ignore this.

Uncle Sam wouldn’t raise a finger and condemn Djibouti’s strongman, Ismail Omar Guelleh as the tiny Horn of Africa nation plays host to the former’s military base. Apart from the USA, Djibouti has allowed France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia and India to set up military bases.

Libya is experiencing a civil war as a result of the invasion by the USA-led NATO forces dating back to 2011. Libya, then under the able leadership of Brother Leader Muammar Qaddafi, was peaceful with the Libyan people guaranteed of access to high quality social amenities with the country not having any foreign debt.

Because of her voracious appetite for oil, USA orchestrated the fall of Libya by arming militants and crafting evil conspiracy theories that Libyans were tired of Qaddafi’s dictatorial regime and were demanding for establishment of democratic systems and structures.

Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Yemen have been ravaged by wars instigated by USA in the name of “War on Terror”. America’s destruction of Afghanistan began after the 9/11 attack with Washington riding on the paranoia that the Taliban was cooperating with Al Qaeda in promoting terrorism. USA invaded Afghanistan when the 9/11 attackers were from Saudi Arabia!

Iraq was destroyed by USA because the Washington government was eyeing the former’s oil. George W. Bush, then serving as the 43rd USA president, lied to the world on how Iraq had ‘Weapons of Mass Destruction’.

Unknown to many, Iraq had a stockpile of these weapons but destroyed them in 1991 and ceased all its nuclear and biological weapons programmes in the same year due to pressure exerted by USA and her allies. Since then, the Iraqi people are strangers to peace and stability with puppets regime established by the USA. And by the way, if Iraq had such weaponry, would the USA have invaded her?

Syria and Yemen are war-torn states with the USA drooling at the oil fields of these countries. But the shithole USA government claims that the Syrian and Yemeni governments are unpopular with the masses and they must fall. USA financed destitute militants to hold anti-government demonstrations in Syria and Yemen, a similar case with Libya, in the wake of the contorted and highly skewed Arab Spring.

Crafting of propaganda and hatching of conspiracy theories is USA’s well-mastered game. Having faced moments of non-cooperation with the Libyan, Syrian and Yemeni governments, the USA government played the opportunist card, triggered chaos and siphoned the oil while lying on why ‘democratic’ governments must be established in these countries.

The double-faced USA government cannot condemn whatsoever the undemocratic regime in Saudi Arabia. The cooperation between USA and Saudi Arabia dates back to February 1945 when the then US President Franklin Roosevelt met with King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia aboard a US warship.

Roosevelt met with King Aziz on his way to the USA after attending the Yalta Conference on the future of Europe following the end of the Second World War. Since then, USA and Saudi Arabia have been close allies with geopolitical interests and oil being the agenda of the American government.

Saudi Arabia is used as a proxy by USA to generate political instability in the Middle East. Through her military partnership/cooperation with Saudi Arabia, USA finances militants to fight legitimate governments in the Middle East with the objective being to cause confusion and steal the oil. Saudi Arabia has a dubious distinction and distinguished notoriety of arming militants, case in point the current civil war in Yemen. But USA is silent.

Closer home, South Sudan is muddling through a civil war that erupted in December 2013. Recently, the USA denounced South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir and declared him as an ‘unfit partner’. But nobody is questioning the role the USA government has been playing in fueling the civil strife in South Sudan. Remember USA is siphoning oil in Africa’s youngest state.

I bet a deal between USA and Salva Kiir has gone sour and Washington has made an about turn on supporting him and is hell bent on deposing Kiir and establishing another puppet government. Folks, it is the oil.

What do you call a state that interferes with the sovereignty of other states, supports dictatorial regimes and promotes war in the world as a divide and rule strategy to loot natural resources? You call it shithole! Never mind that Africa is shithole but my mother country, Kenya, is the shithole of shitholes.

And by the way, at the recent African Union (AU) Summit in Addis Ababa, African political leaders shelved the idea of demanding an apology from the not-so-well read USA president after he sent them a letter expressing his respect for Africa! African political leaders are compromised and intoxicated by neo-colonialism. But, don’t you see both are shitholes?

Sunday, 3 December 2017

The Libyan Slave Market in Perspective

African migrants in Libya.
Courtesy: Al Jazeera.
“Slavery as an institution that degraded man to a thing has never died out. In some periods of history it has flourished: many civilizations have climbed to power and glory on the backs of slaves. In other times slaves have dwindled in number and economic importance. But never has slavery disappeared.” – Milton Meltzer

The recent revelation by CNN about slavery in Libya is an affirmation that this inhumane act is inherently embedded in humanity.

Across civilizations, slavery has transcended different generations with its form and nature varying from crude, to subtle and more nuanced ways of human oppression.

From the ancient civilizations to modern times, slavery has been used as a mechanism to enrich the oppressor and impoverish the oppressed. The oppressed - the slaves - are subjected to forced labour used for the production of goods or offering services to enrich the lives of the oppressor - the slave masters.

In ancient civilizations, slavery was less of a commercial affair with slaves mainly captured to render domestic services to the royalty and political leadership of the kingdom, chiefdom, fiefdom, aristocracy or any other form of headship or socio-political organization that was in existence.

With increased realization of the benefits from trade and trade related activities, the trajectory of slavery shifted and incorporated the commercial aspects that led to the exchange of human beings in markets with monetary value attached to them.

Presence of various forms of social discrimination such as slavery, racism, xenophobia and tribalism in modern times can only be understood from a historical perspective. It is through historical account of events that the foundations of these social processes can be uncovered.

Emergence and re-emergence of the afore-mentioned forms of discrimination is not an event but a process.

Existence of vestigial structures from the previous social, economic and political institutions that promoted and encouraged these negative social processes guarantee their re-occurrence based on the historical cycle and existence of social fault lines.

The historical cycle, in simple terms, refers to the act of history repeating itself which was well stated by the intellectually gifted German, Karl Marx that “history repeats itself first as tragedy and second as farce.”

Therefore, to understand the social and economic basis of the current Libyan slave trade, it is fundamentally important to revisit the pre-colonial and post-colonial social and economic organization as well as institutions in Libya.

Pre-Colonial and Post-Colonial Libya
During the pre-colonial period in Libya, slavery existed in the North African country. Additionally, Libya was also used as a major transit route to ship the slaves captured from Africa’s interior into other parts of the world especially the Middle East and the Far East.

Slave trade that involved the major Libyan cities and towns was aided by the Indian Ocean slave trade and the Trans-Saharan slave trade.

Historical records indicate that slave markets for slaves sold during the Indian Ocean trade were in Persia, and the cities of Medina and Mecca.

The case was the same with slaves traded during the Trans-Saharan trade who were mostly sold in the Middle-East, in the Arabian sphere of the world.

Historians collectively refer to the trade in slaves during both the Indian Ocean trade and the Trans-Saharan trade as the Arab slave trade due to the nature of the trade and destination of the slaves.

Tripoli, Libya’s capital city, was a major slave trade route and one of the largest slave markets in Northern Africa during the pre-colonial period. In this period, the slaves were sold in public a situation similar to the recent account of slavery events as documented by CNN.

Post-colonial Libya has been characterized by two major political events that have shaped the country’s economic, social and political landscape. The hallmark of both political events was regime change.

The first event was the bloodless coup d’├ętat under the leadership of Colonel Muammar Qaddafi that toppled the monarchy led by King Idris I. The revolution and leadership of Qaddafi culminated in the establishment of the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya that lasted from 1977 to 2011.

Libya’s second political event was the Libyan civil war that began in 2011 after the invasion by the NATO forces led by USA, United Kingdom and France that led to the murder of Qaddafi and subsequent regime change through the establishment of the National Transitional Council.

Qaddafi’s administration and the Jamahiriya government presided over a period of social and economic prosperity.

Since the 2011 civil war that was driven and fueled by sinister motives of the NATO states, Libya’s social, economic and political systems have collapsed.

Geographically, Libya borders Chad, Niger and Sudan to the south. Libya’s southern population especially in the Fezzan region has a significant composition of black people. A good proportion of Libya’s black population in the south is made up of migrants whose main countries of origin (before the NATO sponsored rebellion in 2011) were Niger and Chad.

In terms of development, the Fezzan region lags behind other regions in Libya though more developed than Niger and Chad.

Being more developed than Chad and Niger, this acted as a pull factor that occasioned the immigration of Africans from Niger and Chad into southern Libya.

With the outbreak of the civil war instigated by the USA and her allies, Fezzan region and other parts of Libya have become ungovernable with rampant incidences of lawlessness.

A stable Fezzan region under Qaddafi guaranteed sustainable livelihood at least for a significant number of Africans in the northern side of Niger and Chad.

Collapse of the economic, social and political systems in the Fezzan region and largely Libya has led to a state of economic desperation and destitution for the populations of Niger and Chad that depended on and reaped from the economic prosperity and socio-political stability of Libya under Qaddafi.

The consequence of the collapse of the social, political and economic order in Libya and the Fezzan region is the massive number of migrants seeking to get to Europe via Italy.

This high number of migrants who have fallen victim to slavery depended on Libya’s economic prosperity under Qaddafi. Economic prosperity in Libya during Qaddafi’s era trickled-down to Niger and Chad and this managed to keep low the number of migrants from these countries.

Current Situation
Currently, Libya has no substantive government in place with the leading political entities being the UN-backed Government of National Accord (GNA) led by Prime Minister Faiez Serraj with its base in Tripoli and the Libyan National Army (LNA) under the leadership of General Khalifa Haftar.

Besides these two political groupings, there are other political formations that are factions of the leading political units as indicated by a report published by Al Jazeera.

At the moment, there are at least 700,000 migrants in Libya as estimated by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). A larger proportion of these migrants are on their way to Europe and they mostly originate from Niger, Chad, and Sudan among other West African countries such as Nigeria and Cameroon.

With lawlessness prevailing in Libya due to socio-political and economic instability, the various political groups ranging from the UN-backed and “internationally recognized” GNA to other militia organizations have resorted to illicit economic activities for survival.

Among the illicit economic activities include smuggling/trafficking of people, smuggling of fuel and the illegal mining of gold.

According to a report by the International Crisis Group, smuggling/trafficking of people in Libya generates annual revenues ranging between $1 billion and $1.5 billion. The same report documents that smuggling of fuel across Libya generates about $2 billion per year with fuel being sold at $0.02 in the black market lower than the official price set at $0.12.

It is the over $1 billion worth economic activity of smuggling/trafficking migrants across Libya that is the genesis of the slave trade.

Smuggling and trafficking of people in Libya has been taking place since 2012 with no substantive government in place. The smuggling has since degenerated into slave trade with the captured migrants being treated savagely.

Emergence of slave trade in Libya can also be partly attributed to legal and policy measures adopted by the European Union and the acclaimed Government of National Accord to intercept the migrants on their journey to Europe.

The resultant effect has been the retention of the migrants in Libya by the smugglers and traffickers of people. With a massive supply and glut of migrants in their retention facilities, the human smugglers and traffickers in Libya have resorted to sell them through public auctions.

A fundamental concern in the wake of slave trade in Libya is whether the ‘Africa Rising’ narrative is more of a myth than reality of which the former holds.

If Africa is indeed rising, then the benefits from the social, political and economic development generated by ‘Africa Rising’ ought to be witnessed in all African countries with the lives of the economically vulnerable Africans improving significantly.

‘Africa Rising’ is mythical as well as a misrepresentation and misstatement of facts since it is only a few African countries and a certain cadre of African people that are on the rise. If Africa was rising collectively, then economic conditions in Niger and Chad would be very conducive such that there would be no or extremely few migrants crossing Libya seeking to get to Europe.

Way Forward
Repatriation of the migrants to their countries of origin is only a temporary measure. The African Union must take responsibility and ensure that countries where immigrants originate from have stable and functioning economies that work for all.

Foreign non-African institutional entities such as the European Union, the International Organization for Migration and extensively the United Nations must show full commitment by working with governments where migrants originate from to address the ‘push’ factors.

The UN must stamp its authority on countries like the USA that promote foreign invasion and subjugate the territorial integrity of other states which is a violation of the UN Charter. The unnecessary civil wars and civil unrests have done more harm than good and the crises facing humanity at the moment could be avoided if the self-anointed “world prefects” such as USA chose to prioritize and pursue peaceful means to solve conflicts.

Slavery and smuggling/trafficking of people should be highly criminalized with very high costs of punishment attached to the promoters of this vice.

Dealing with slave trade in Libya calls for a multi-pronged approach including an end to the nonsensical foreign invasions and promotion of tangible socio-economic development in countries such as Niger, Chad among others.

Slavery must be condemned and it must fall including human trafficking!